رﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ

ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺑﻜﻞ ﻣﺎﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﻗﺴﻮﺓ ﺣﺮﻛﺖ ﺭﻭﺡ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﺬ ﻧﺸﺄﺗﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺼﻮﺭ ﻣﺎﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻟﻴﺆﺭﺥ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻄة ﻓﻲ ﺭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻬﺎ ﻟﻨﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﺪﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﻮﻑ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﻤﺔ ﻋﺒﺎﺭة ﻋﻦ ﺭﺳﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﺪﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﺤﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﺃﻧﺎﺱ ﻭﺭﻣﻮﺯ ﺗﺘﺮﺟﻢ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ ﻭﺇﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩﺍﺗﻪ ﻭﺇﺣﺴﺎﺳﻪ ﺑﺤﻮﺟﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﻯ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﻋﻦ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻦ ﻗﺪ ﻭﻟﺪ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺍﻷﺯﻝ . . .
ﺛﻢ ﺗﻄﻮﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﺓ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻧﻀﻮﺝ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺠﺴﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻛﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺑﺨﻠﻖ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻟﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﺤﺎﻛﺎﺓ ﻟﻠﻄﺒﻴﻌة ،، ﻭﺭﻏﻢ ﺭﻭﻋﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺮﻛﻪ ﻟﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺳﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺯﺧﺎﺭﻑ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺻﻨﻊ ﻭﺇﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻧﻬﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎﺃﺫﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﻝ ﻭﺳﻠﺒﻬﺎ  .
ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺃﻋﻤﻖ ﻭﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺪ ﺃﻭﺭﺍﻗﻲ ﻟﻜﻦ ﻓﻀﻮﻟﻲ ﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺇﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎﺩﻓﻌﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺇﺟﺎﺑﺔ ، ﻭﻗﺪ ﺳﻠﺒﺖ ﻋﻘﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﺟﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻃُﻔﺖ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﻄﺎﻓﺖ ﺑﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺁﻓﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﻳﻦ  .
ﻓﻘﺪ ﺇﺳﺘﻌﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﺎﻥ ﺁﻧﺬﺍﻙ ﺑﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻟﺪﻳﻪ ﻟﻴﻤﻨﺤﻪ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺭﻏﻢ ﺑﺴﺎﻃﺘﻪ ﻛﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻮﺍﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻴﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﻤﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺤﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻮﻧﻪ ، ﺛﻢ ﺻﺎﺭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺗﻘﺪﻣﺎً ﻓﺎﺳﺘﺨﺮﺝ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﻕ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺨﻮﺭ ﻣﺘﻜﻮﻧﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺛﺎﻧﻲ ﺃﻛﺴﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻐﻨﻴﺰ ..ﻭﺍﻷﺑﻴﺾ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﺠﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﻴﺴﺤﻖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺠﺎﺭة ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﻐﺪﻭ ﻧﺎعمة ، ﻛﻤﺎ ﺇﺳﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﺎﻡ ﺑﺪﻻً ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺮيشة .
ﻭﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﺇﺳﺘﻄﺎﻉ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻮﺻﻞ ﻟﺨﻠﻂ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻛﺎﺳﻴﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ ﻣﻊ ﺩﻫﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻮﺍﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺩﻣﻪ ﻟﺘﺒﻘﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﺭﺍﻥ ﻓﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﺃﻃﻮﻝ، ﻭﻓﻌﻼً ﺃﺛﺒﺘﺖ ﺻﻤﻮﺩﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﻮﺭ ، ﻛﻤﺎ ﺇﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺻﺒﻎ ﺃﻏﺮﺍﺿﻪ ﻟﻠﺰﻳﻨﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻄﺮﺩ ﺍﻷﺭﻭﺍﺡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻟﺠﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺤﻆ …
ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺃﺟﻤﻞ ﺇﺧﺘﺮﺍﻉ ﻓﻨﻲ ﺗﻮﺻﻞ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺸﺎﺑﻬﺖ ﻧﻮﻋﺎً ﻣﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺪﻟﻮﻻﺗﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻌﺐ ﻵﺧﺮ ، ، ﻓﺎﻷﺑﻴﺾ ﻳﻤﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﺒﺔ، ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺮ ﻭﺍﻵلهة  . ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺩ ﻳﻤﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻈﻼﻡ ،ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺕ ،ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻠﻲ . ﺍﻷﺣﻤﺮ ﻳﻤﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ،ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺎﺀﻭﺍﻟﺨﻄﺮ . ﺍﻷﺻﻔﺮ ﻳﻤﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ،ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ،ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻟﻲ ،ﺍﻷﻟﻮﻫﻴﺔ ،ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻘﺪ . ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻔﺴﺞ ﻳﻤﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻓﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺒﺮﻳﺎﺀ ﻭﺭﺑﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻢ . ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻮﺍﻧﻲ ﻳﻤﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﻥ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺏ ﻭﻣﺼﺪﺭﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮﻳﻪ .. .. ..
ﺛﻢ ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻦ ﺟﺪاً ﻓﺄﺳﺘُﺨﺪِﻣﺖ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﻳﻦ ﻭﻫﻲ : ﺍﻷﻧﻜﻮﺳﺘﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻤﺒﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﺳﻜﻮ . _
ﺍﻷﻧﻜﻮﺳﺘﺎ : ﺇﺳﺘﻌﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧﺎﻧﻴﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻭﻣﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺼﺮﻳﻮﻥ ﻭﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﻤﺰﺝ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺋﺐ ﻭﺗﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺳﺎﺧﻨﻪ .
 ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺒﺮﺍ : ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺗﻄﺤﻦ ﻛﺎﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻭﺗﻤﺰﺝ ﺑﺼﻔﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺾ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻤﻎ.
ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺳﻜﻮ : ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﻳﻦ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻻﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺇﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﺺ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﺝ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺠﻒ ﻭﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻧﻴﻦ ﺍلـ 13 _ 14 ﻣﻠﻮﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺮﺳﻜﻮ ﻭﺗﻌﻨﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻳﻄﺎﻟﻴﻪ > ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺯﺝ > ،،
ﻭﺃﻭﻝ ﻓﻨﺎﻥ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﺘﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﺇﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻭﺧﻠﻄﻬﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺗﺸﻴﻤﺎﺑﻮﻯ ﺑﻔﻠﻮﺭﻧﺴﺎ ﺛﻢ ﻓﺮﺍﻓﻠﺒﻮ ﻟﺒﻰ ﺛﻢ ﺗﻼﻫﻢ ﺭﻭﻓﺎﺋﻴﻞ ﻭﺩﺍﻓﻨﺸﻲ ﻭﻣﺎﻳﻜﻞ ﺃﻧﺠﻠﻮ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺛﻢ ﺑﺪﺃ ﺭﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻳﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ، ﻓﻜﺎﻧﺖ ﺃﻗﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻮنة ﻭﺃﻗﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺳﺘﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﻊ ﻭﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎئية ﻭﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺇﻛﺘﺸﻔﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﺧﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻬﻮﻟﻨﺪﻳﻴﻦ ﻫﻴﻮﺑﺮﺕ ﻭ ﺟﺎﻥ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺁﻳﻚ
ﺛﻢ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺒﺮﺍ ﻭﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻷﻛﺮﻟﻴﻚ ﻭﺃﺻﺒﺎﻍ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﻳﺔ ﻟﻄﻼﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻥ ﻭﺃﺻﺒﺎﻍ ﺍﻟﺒﺘﻼﻟﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻄﻼﺀ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﺭﺍﻥ . . .
ﻭﻗﺪ ﺛﺒﺖ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﺪﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﻮﻑ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺃﻓﺎﺩﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﻭﺑﺬﺍﺕ ﺧﻮﺍﺻﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺴﺪ .. ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺃﺳﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ

بقلم الكاتبة والشاعرة السودانية / نهى ابراهيم سالم


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